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Cognitive Function in Patients With Prostate Cancer Receiving Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Analogues: A Prospective, Observational, Multicenter Study

      Purpose

      The effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on cognitive performance (CP) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients is not well understood. We evaluated changes in CP after 6 months of medical castration with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues.

      Methods and Materials

      We performed a prospective, observational, multicenter, open-label study of PCa patients scheduled to receive LHRH analogues for ≥6 months. We assessed 4 domains of CP at baseline and after 6 months of ADT: (1) working memory, assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS III) Digit Span subtest; (2) visual memory, assessed with an ad hoc visual memory test; (3) visuospatial ability, assessed with the Judgment of Line Orientation test and Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects test; and (4) nonverbal analytical reasoning, assessed with the WAIS III Matrix Reasoning test. Changes outside the baseline 95% confidence intervals were considered significant.

      Results

      A total of 308 patients completed the study. Of these, 245 (79.6%) experienced no statistically significant changes on any test whereas 63 (20.4%) experienced significant changes on ≥1 test. Most of these patients showed a change on only 1 test, distributed evenly between improvement (58 patients, 18.8%) and worsening (56 patients, 18.2%). For individual tests, most patients (87.8%-91.8%) had no change from baseline; however, the significant changes (improvement vs deterioration) were as follows: WAIS III Digit Span subtest (6.3% vs 5.9%), visual memory (5.3% vs 5.7%), Judgment of Line Orientation test (5.3% vs 4.5%), Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects test (4.1% vs 4.1%), and WAIS III Matrix Reasoning test (4.8% vs 5.8%).

      Conclusions

      CP in patients with PCa does not appear to be adversely affected by 6 months of LHRH analogue administration.
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