Ultrahypofractionated Proton Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Low and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer-5-Year Outcomes

Published:February 12, 2021DOI:


      To analyze the 5-year biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) and late toxicity profile in patients with prostate cancer treated with pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton radiation therapy.

      Methods and Materials

      Between January 2013 and March 2016, 284 patients with prostate cancer were treated using intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), with an ultrahypofractionated schedule (36.25 GyE in 5 fractions). Five patients were immediately lost from follow-up and thus were excluded from analysis. Data for 279 patients were prospectively collected and analyzed with a median follow-up time of 56.5 (range, 3.4-87.5) months. The mean age at time of treatment was 64.5 (40.1-85.7) years, and the median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value was 6.35 μg/L (0.67-17.3 μg/L). A total of 121 (43.4%) patients had low-risk, 125 patients (44.8%) had favorable, and 33 (11.8%) unfavorable intermediate-risk cancer. In addition, 49 (17.6%) patients underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, and no patients had adjuvant hormonal therapy. bDFS and late toxicity profiles were evaluated.


      The median treatment time was 9 days (range, 7-18 days). The 5-year bDFS was 96.9%, 91.7%, and 83.5% for the low-, favorable, and unfavorable intermediate-risk group, respectively. Late toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.4) was as follows: gastrointestinal: grade 1, 62 patients (22%), grade 2, 20 patients (7.2%), and grade 3, 1 patient (0.36%); genitourinary: grade 1, 80 patients (28.7%), grade 2, 14 patients (5%), and grade 3, 0 patients. PSA relapse was observed in 17 patients (6.1%), and lymph node or bone recurrence was detected in 11 patients. Four (1.4%) local recurrences were detected. Nine patients (3.2%) died of causes unrelated to prostate cancer. No deaths related to prostate cancer were reported.


      Ultrahypofractionated proton beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer is effective with long-term bDFS comparable with other fractionation schedules and with minimal serious long-term GI and GU toxicity.
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